Anyone must be aware that IF there is to be a nightmare situation of a nuclear explosion happening near you, here are some basic tips and info on how to best keep yourself and others safe.
(I'm gathering this from various web sources and personal knowledge that I've read.)
One of the most important things to do is not be anywhere near the detonation site. How would you avoid it if you don't know where it is? Now if this disaster occurs suddenly without warning, you must obviously be far away to survive that. If you are somewhere outside, you would hear either the thunderous explosion, see blinding light and feel a powerful blast. Quickly take cover. Hide in a shelter or underground. At times like that, one of the most safest places to be! If you are a considerable long distance away then you also need to protect yourselves from radiation or fallout. The most harmful and deadliest part of a nuclear attack is "black rain".
Radio and batteries will work but most electricals won't. An attack from a nuclear explosion will cut off and damage most electricals. Heavy objects including stones, rocks, bricks, hard soil even can offer protection against fallout. During fallout period, as the radioactive dust is falling and settling, it's wise to remain hidden and not exposed. Make sure all windows, ventilation systems and central heating is off to avoid any radiation particles entering the vacinity. You can use a HEPA filter that may prevent anything outside getting in.
You would need gear. NBC masks are perfect. Any clothing with debris must be left outside or thrown away. Washing oneself regularly will flush off radiation dust. Taking potassium Iodine will ease the risk of cancer from radiation sickness. Tinned food is preferable. Avoid milk and exposed food and water. Only drink filtered water. For more tips go to Nuclear Survival
This is what you need after a nuclear attack during fallout. Food that is clean, well stored and pretected. They must have the following componants:
Calcium / magnesium.
Vitamin A or beta carotene.
Vitamin C + bioflavinoids and rutin.
Proanthocyanadins (Grape seed extract / Pycnogenol).
Now these are some of the foods that offer protection:
Chlorophyll food (barley grass and chlorella).
Fermented (Lactic Acid) veg and juices.
Cultured (fermented) milk products: yoghurt, buttermilk, cheese.
Cruciferous vegetables (cabbage, ect).
High fibre food.
Natural Vitamin A.
Bee and flower pollen.
Essential fatty acids, GLA and EPA.
(With more details from "Healthy Tips")
Sea vegetables, commonly known as sea weeds, such as kelp, purple dulse, wakame, and sea lettuce are high in iodine. Sea spaghetti, nori, and kombu are other sea vegetables to consider. One quarter teaspoon of kelp provides 3 mg of iodine. Consuming one-half teaspoon, or two grams, of purple dulse on a daily basis is enough to meet the recommended 150 mcg dosage of iodine, according to the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University.
Another useful link for survival basics: How to survive a nuclear attack
Did you know?
Sea salt and baking soda remedies against radiation.
Volanic eruptions are more deadly than a nuclear explosion.
Nukes are very popular in science fiction. This is called a Post Apocalyptic genre. Check out:
Cockroaches are physically able to thrive after nuclear explosions.
Okay that's about it.
Picture of the soldier girl at the top of the page is by the artist Petre Morozov.